Vae Viator54

When politicians involve themselves in technical matters, expect failures.

The photograph below documents the situation at the Maxella AV and Lincoln BL stop on the BBB number 3 Line. It is the sort of “work” one would expect from the LACMTA. They taped or caused to be taped shut the aperture in the plastic pipes associated with power poles. These pipes were used as improvised trash cans. BBB N.B. The stop still needs a trash can!
Su Topo will include this comment in every post with the above until BBB
corrects the problem. For quite awhile BBB has been charging for intra-line transfers, reversing the long standing policy of free transfers to other BBB lines. 

Too, BBB has spent lots of money to build a big headquarters on Colorado BL just east of 4th Street. Mr. King, just a few dollars for a trash can, you might need a few more to cover other bus stops too, will erase this section. After all, it is Marina Del Rey! :-)

BBB Maxella Trash Fix???♪

White Line Incursion Series
Su Topo uses video to highlight the problem of scofflaw drivers endangering Metro bus passengers yet, no authority seems to want to take ownership of the problem. The issue is not unique to the particular site which this Mole documents, but is illustrative of a general problem. Your Mole encourages you to report similar problems to the appropriate agencies in your area(s) and hope that you will have better luck than he. In the youtube.com videos linked below one can see exactly what happens when the policing agencies fail to enforce traffic laws.

The videos linked below document the important fact that a never ending stream of vehicles fail to use the lane as required by law.
Neither are the policing agencies active when it comes to protecting us by bringing these obvious and frequent traffic law violations to an immediate halt. The LACMTA is derelict as well, in that they fail to use the near hourly proof of the violations captured by the on board cameras, mentioned here, and discussed at length in the posting of 2012-05-31.

In the following videos we see further instances of scofflaw drivers, some in convoy, cutting in front of Metro 111/311 buses.
Please see the www.youtube.com video of an SUV cutting off a 111/311 Line bus, here and two vehicles convoying  across the solid white line and cutting off a Line 111/311 bus here

Please carefully note that often, pedestrians are be pinned to the curb by the vehicles that cut in front of the bus —as a result these pedestrians are illegally denied the right-of-way. Which right-of-way would be unchallengeably theirs IF, and only IF, Mr. Leahy would have one of his staff explain su Topo’s  simple solution (vide infra) to him. 

In spite of the potential for these violations to occur several times per HOUR, I have never seen a police presence at this location. One would think that with a bus schedule taped to the dashboard one of the several policing agencies would have made some arrests by now. Unless they have "more important" work, than protecting bus passengers, to do.

La Taupe feels that it is appropriate to dedicate these video(s) to ALL the agencies that should be protecting us. So, they are dedicated to (1): Airport (LAWA) Police, the L.A.P.D., the L. A. County Sheriff’s Department and Mr. A. Leahy who is CEO of the LACMTA.

Su  Topo has recommended a simple solution to the problem. That is, have the 111 Line buses pull up to pedestrian crosswalk then stop and discharge passengers. Doing so eliminates the space in front of the bus which the always-in-a-hurry scofflaws use to cut in front of the bus. But, with the LACMTA nothing is simple. Although the solution could be implemented with nothing more than a memo to the 111/311 Line drivers, it is a task for which the LACMTA is inadequate.

A sad event made even sadder

The Los Angeles Times reported (Xia) that a Manhattan Beach teenager has died after, on July 11, 2014, while standing up on the open-air, top-deck of a tour bus, the upper part of his body was struck by the Arbor Vitae overpass of the 405 Freeway.

This was the second occurrence of such an accident. The first occasion (Staff) took place when a Queens teenager opened the hatch of an enclosed upper-deck and looked out.  He was killed near Ft. Lee, NJ. 

Had the California licensing agencies been aware of the New Jersey accident they could have promulgated regulations which prohibited use of the upper-deck when the bus was traveling on freeways or in other areas with overpasses.  I could not determine whether the LACMTA has any responsibility over buses like the ones operated by Starline Tours. 


Your Mole has calculated the potential earnings for the Lawa FlyAway service. Based upon the 1.5 million passengers quoted in a 2008 report, he assumed 2 million passengers in 2013.  Using the current rate of $8/passenger the estimated gross earnings should be $16,000,000.00 – Yes $16 MILLION!  Of course, fares from Westwood are $10, even though Westwood in closer to LAX??  My estimates for earnings may be understated because there are more routes in 2012 and even more in 2013 and currently; which translates to higher earnings.  Further, monthly passes for airport employees cost $120 bringing their costs down and correspondingly reducing Lawa’s earnings from the $352 twenty-two day round trip cost. 

Airport employees could travel on Metro buses to the LAXCBC, then, ride a free parking lot shuttle to the terminal area.  Organizations which pride themselves on their transparency would have more detailed statistics and certainly more up-to-date data.

Then, using the LACMTA financial statement for 2010, it was all that I could find* —you are, of course, not surprised —I made the following determination.  That “[p]assenger fares” collected totaled $ 316,427,000.

*I looked through the directory structure that contained the 2010 report, no luck!  Then, a more general search of the dysfunctional organization’s website resulted in this message: “Your search - financial statments_2012 +financial statments_2013 +financial statments_2014 site:www ... - did not match any documents.

I submit that Lawa is picking the LACMTA’s pocket to the tune of $16 million!  Now, if the LACMTA ran something like express buses, it could not charge $8 per seat, nor should it.  So in actual fact, based on say, a nominal fare of $3 per seat Lawa is only picking the LACMTA’s pocket to the tune of $6 million! 

Question number one, anyone please: Why is Lawa in the bus business?  There is a question for the Los Angeles Times Transportation beat reporters; perhaps lead by Ms Nelson?

Question number two: With an additional $6 million, or more, in fare collections going to the LACMTA instead of Lawa; would a fare increase on 2014-09-15 even be necessary?

Regarding that fare increase, base fare is increasing from $1.50 to $1.75, slightly more than 15%.

Metro–to-Muni Transfers are increasing from .35 to .50, around 42%.

Senior base fares, for peak travel times, are increasing from .50 to .75, a 50% increase.

Senior Metro–to-Muni Transfers are increasing from .10 to.25, a 250% increase!

It appears that the seniors must either reduce their travel or start emptying out their piggy banks.  My recommendation to the seniors is to involve an organization to lobby on their behalf.  Perhaps, AARP would assume the task.

Question number three: Is the LACMTA trying to balance its perennial money problems on the backs of seniors?

Question number four: Why can’t the LACMTA and LAWA be more transparent and publish their financial data?

The operating loss shown on the 2010 report was $1,328,532,000, that is more than $1.3 billion!!  An additional $6 million would have hardly dented that amount.  Does that $1.3 billion loss value give you the feeling that someone is guilty of financial mismanagement?

Loss Making LACMTA

One can see the loss amount from the 2101 financial report above.  This Mole can criticise something that is undoubtedly missing from the financial statement and that is a contingency reserve for maintenance.  An excellent organization is aware, by experience over time, that maintenance costs can be estimated as a percentage of plant and equipment.  Your Mole has seen many instances of maintenance being ignored.  A single example will suffice: there are a number of cracked, overhead glass panels ay Mariposa Station.  These panels present a danger to the traveling public in earthquake-prone California!  (Please see: this earlier post (page down to the photos).  TWO CLICKS on each picture will enlarge it and make the cracks more visible.

Question number five: Why is the LACMTA allowed to build out infrastructure beyond their capacity to maintain it?

A team from the Los Angeles Times could easily expand this list of questions and go on to write a Pulitzer Prize winning exposé of the dysfunctional LACMTA.  That is, if they weren’t constrained by their management for “some reason”.


Your Mole is always interested in the illogical.  Such as exactly why pages are “intentionally left blank”; as they do in LACMTA’s financial report.  Is it so that someone’s  brother-in-law can sell more paper to the LACMTA or is there a “better” reason?

The Mole reads the papers and other things, obviating the necessity of your doing so.

The Los Angeles Times reports (Nelson) that the LACMTA board voted 9 to 3 to award the contract to build out the Purple Line.

Ms Nelson writes that the$1.6-billion Purple Line extension contract to a joint venture led by Skanska USA”.  She continues: “But some elected officials balked at the price difference in bids, saying a $1.4-billion proposal by another firm, Dragados USA, warranted further consideration.”

The operative comment was: "I'm having a hard time leaving $192 million on the table," L.A. County Supervisor Don Knabe said during the meeting. "This process is extremely flawed." 

Su Topo feels that he means that, in awarding the contract to Skanska, the LACMTA is OVERPAYING by $192 million. Leaving $192 million “on the table” communicates to la Taupe that money is NOT being spending???  It is just taxpayer’s money after all.

amNY covers (Pereira) that fact that New York City has the lowest transportation costs in the U.S.  They have “critical mass” in that 52% of the citizenry uses mass transportation which, except for the buses, is RAPID transit as well!

«  C'est si beau, la mer et les ciels, les bêtes, les gens et les arbres tels que la nature les a faits, avec leur caractère, leur vraie manière d'être, dans la lumière, dans l'air, tels qu'il sont. »

Eugène Boudin (1824-07-12~1898-08-08)

 ["It's so beautiful, the sea and sky, animals, people and trees as nature made ​​them, with their character, their true way of being in the light, in the air, such that are .]

Ars longa vita breva

Here is a link to a number of Eugène Boudin’s paintings 

You can lots more by using your search engine.

How about something from a compositeur who was a contemporary of Boudin?  Perhaps, “Intermezzo” by Charles Gounod,(1818-06-17~1893-10-18) h

Merci beaucoup!, Thank you! to our good friends at www.grooveshark.com for always providing the appropriate music for us.

The Mole rides again, so you can learn how MV Transportation Drivers clean their buses.
(All times are expressed in the 24 hour system.)

The Bus But NOT the ACT♪

2014-07-31 14:00 @ LAXCBC: I watch, but my camera operator is too slow L to capture driver 83064 kick trash out of bus number 11029 into the roadway.   He drives for MV Transportation; you remember them, they always have the dispatch radios set at an ear-splitting level.

Mi Casa Su Basura♪
2014-08-02 at Lenox & Hawthorne BL @ 10:20: A man works assiduously (Please see photo above) to construct something in front of a disused shoe store.  He has LOTS of shopping carts, some clearly identified as belonging to Sears, Marukai Pacific and etc.

2014-08-02 12:47 @ Willowbrook Station: The PA announcement is trying, in vain, to tell us something.  Too bad that the freeway noise overwhelms make the speaker unintelligible.  The LACMTA should be sued for violating OSHA noise level standards AND for gross stupidity for not making the announcements via the platform scroll!  Although they do scroll an advisory to use one’s iPhone.

BBB Operator and Passenger Talk & Talk & …♪

2014-08-06 Aboard BB Bus #1340 @11:30:  The driver, number 18450, who was identified by the scroll, a new feature on BBB, carried on a non-stop conversation with a male passenger (photo above) —now if only Metro buses would scroll the drivers number … .

The Walk Light is ALWAYS against you II

2014-08-06 just before 13:00, in El Segundo at the intersection of Roscrans and Sepulveda:  Crossing this street proves that the walk light is always against you!   Please see the video here

Sleeping Beauty at LAXCBC♪

2014-08-06 @ 13:40 at LAXBC: Nothing is more indicative of the poor security at the LAX City Bus Center than the many homeless who populate the area and loiter without a valid purpose.

Occasionally one does see a sector car from one of the agencies expected to maintain order in the area, but these officers seem to coexist peacefully with the transients.

2014-08-07 @ 07:31: Your Mole rides CCMBL 6 Line bus, number 7109 driven by operator #112 who carries on a long conversation with her friend who straddles the yellow line up front and, due to her, ummm, girth?, blocks more than half of the narrow aisle at the front, impeding ingress and egress.

2014-08-14 aboard a northbound, CC Rapid #6 @ 08:00:  Operator number 82 driving bus number 7107 has us rocking and rolling up Sepulveda.  Accelerate, break … repeat ad nauseam (Cf. 2014-08-21).  Neither are smooth stops in this driver’s repertoire.  She is, without question, one of the roughest and jerkiest drivers employed by the CCMBL.

2014-08-21 aboard a northbound, CC Rapid #6 @ 06:30:  Operator number 86, driving bus number 7107, delivers a nice, smooth, pleasant ride up Sepulveda.  Contrast that with the ride obtained from Operator number 82 (Vide supra).

How we spend one third of our time♪

Bus riders spend one third of their time, walking, one third of their time waiting and one third of their time actually riding buses —at least that is this Mole’s estimate.  

2014-08-30 @ 06:00: Alma Del Barrio wakes me up.  The hostesses today are Angelica and Ana.  They are bright and cheerful.  It is GREAT to hear Español spoken so beautifully!  One of the early songs in the program is La Mujre Latina.   It is a wonderful start to a three-day weekend!  Here is a different version of La Mujre Latina, one with a salsa beat. 
Here is also a version by Thalia
Ear (and Eye) to the Rail

Let’s listen to some bus related music.  How about Blues Del Autobus by
Ana Belén y Victor Manuel? 

Transit as unseen and unimagined by the LACMTA

The LACMTA  (Subordinate to LAWA)


Every Which Way But Right!


Four Seats to LAX!


The LACMTA Tries Again; Asymptotically to LAX!


The World’s Most Inconvenient Way in Which to Travel From City Center to an Airport!

The purpose of this section is to make people aware that the LACMTA is not home to many problem solvers.  I hope to accomplish this end by presenting the solutions adopted by other cities, some in foreign countries, in solving the city to airport rapid mass transportation challenge.

Cautionary Note: Those employed by the LACMTA or LAWA should NOT view the following video(s). The speed of the train(s), the fact that they neither share the right of way nor stop at stop lights, because they are truly rapid transit, will likely make you dizzy, nauseous, confuse and frighten you.

Medellin, Colombia, ranked 100th largest city in the world, has a population of 3,686,000 and is about 1/4th the size of Los Angele, which is ranked 17th in the world and has a population of 14,900,000 —but, take a look at the nice rapid transit, i.e., grade separated from other traffic, system which they have in Medellin.  Tambien, una conductora linda de tren, Ms Sarasuati Ochoa.

Medellin is like Los Angeles in that they don’t have a train to their airport either —yet.  But I wouldn’t bet against them being the first to have it or to end up with a single seat ride to their airport.

The video is linked here.  

Kind of makes you hang your head in shame, doesn’t it? Mr. Leahy??

Su Topo believes that the legacy of the LACMTA, developed over say, the last 50 years, is a third-rate (3rd rate) transportation hodge-podge, that does not rise to the level of being described as a system.  It will plague and retard Los Angeles for generations.  It is NOT a legacy of RAPID TRANSIT, rather it is an ill-concieved, poorly designed and pooly cconstructed network based upon the Toonerville Trolley model.

It is not too late to freeze all projects whit the possible exceptio being the Purple Line to the VA Hospital.

Thank you youtube.com for the video!  Also, Muchas Gracias to Elman532, ho uploaded the video.  

And speaking of legacies, perhaps one should go back and read the Los Angeles Times story (Panzar) about the "Century Crunch".  However, like seemingly most of the projects taken on by the LACMTA. there are often unintended consequences.  Please take a look at the photo below. 

Nice Work LACMTA (NOT!)

Pictured is the Century BL/Aviation BL intersection showing the ped-head (pedestrian cross-walk signal) on the north-east corner.  It is out of service.  

It is the only way for users of the Metro 117 Line, BBB 3 and 3R and the CCMBL 6 and 6R buses to travel east from the busstop.  Said busstop is located 10 metres or so from the nort-west corner of the intersection.  There is NO CROSSWALK that allows on to cross Century BL from the north-west corner to the south-west corner.  There is a crosswalk allowing Aviation BL to be crossed from the north-west corner to the north-east corner, BUT, there is no working ped-head; as evidenced by the photo just above!

If anyone believes that the LACMTA gives even a passing thought to its ridership, then  the above should disabuse those passengers of the thought.

This Mole is fairly certain that IF someone from the LACMTA can read this the signal will be back in operation "soon". 

And Mr. Leahy, there is absolutely no reason to thank this Mole; he only does what a normal person would do after observing and analysing your organization's "work".  


Black holes are interesting there are over 100 million in our galaxy and they are BIG!  A report (University) in Science Daily describes the range in sizes as:  from 10 times to 100 times the mass of our sun.  Gigantic black holes may be as large as 1 million times the mass of sol!  Where else can the lyrics of a Beatles song be found embedded in a scientifice work?

Please read the details included in this eminently readable article.

To All My Readers your Mole hopes that you 

Have a safe and happy Labor Day!

Fare Box Score Box and related Lists of Shame
I.D. Numbers of buses with Out of Order Fare Boxes: xxxx;
Note: No or few entries above do not necessarily mean all fare boxes are in operation.

I.D.Numbers of Distracted Drivers: xxxxx (i);
None included here, but observations of a minor nature may be included in the main posting;
Codes: (i) Extended conversation(s) with passenger(s) or (ii) cell phone call(s). Frequently, details can be found in the text above, (ii*) cell phone call(s) which are aggravated by some other action, (iii) Self-distracted. Codes (ii*) and (iii) will ALWAYS be explained in the posting.

I.D. Numbers of Buses Defaced by WhoIs stickers: xxxx;
~UR or +UR = (+UR) whois sticker and the ugly residue left after passengers partly remove the sticker. (~UR) = Only the ugly residue left after passengers almost completely remove the sticker. +L = an old (legacy) sticker black letters on a plain white background –these are the original form of the defacement.
* Another reason for displaying the operator's ID on the internal display and the headsign.

ID numbers of Buses whose Head and Tailsigns disagree: Not noted xxxx/xxxx;
Format is Bus number followed by Headsign number/Tailsign number.

ID numbers of Buses without Braille signs: xxxx;

METRO drivers Lack of Basic Technical Skills Report
The format is Driver number F[{Y/-n/+n}] C[{Y/N+/-}]. Meaning of F if Y the driver stopped with the Bus stop “flag pole” somewhere between the bus front door frames. A negative number, e.g., -3 is the approximate distance in metres (think yards dear readers) between the nearest bus door vertical frame member and the flag pole signifying that the bus stopped short of the flag. A positive number, e.g., +3 (metres) is the approximate distance between the nearest bus door vertical frame member and the flag pole signifying that the bus stopped past the flag. The value for C[{Y/N}], “Y” tells us that the driver stopped within an easy step from the curb to the bus, “N” means it was NOT an easy step from the curb to the bus. It is this Mole's belief that an average experienced good driver should be able to control his bus so as to position in near the curb and with the flag pole slightly to the front of the bus.
xxxxx F[+4] C[Y];

I.D. numbers of drivers who are unable or unwilling to position their buses parallel to the curb, a short step from the curb and/or equidistant from the vehicles exits.
XXXXX F[+10] C[Y]; F[+7], C[Y]; xxxxx F[Y], C[Y]; xxxxxF[Y], C[Y]; N.B. distances are in metres, think yards.
13 metres is this is MORE than a bus length.  nnnnn* = Contract Driver

I.D. numbers of drivers who are almost guaranteed to give you a Rough and Jerky (R& J) ride: xxxxx;

I.D. numbers of drivers who will give you a potentially life-threatening ride:
 XXXXX(J)date; XXXXX(-);
Codes: S = not wearing seat belts; J = bad judgment (unsafe driving practices).
La Taupe's Abréviations
ADADO = Automatic Destination Announcement (on) Door Opening. This feature is installed on many buses and operates on extremely few. Another“money down the toilet” LACMTA investment. La Taupe that this is intended for the visually impaired because people who can see can read the “head signs”.
ASAS = Automatic Stop Announcement System the GPS (Global Positioning System) driven mechanism for generating audio for the upcoming stops. N.B. Because of the low power (read weak) processors used in the on-board stops may be too close to identify stops separately. This is known as a granularity problem. Then too, if the driver operates the bus at speed above the speed limit you will find the system “back announcing” stops which you have already passed. I find that this will NOT keep some drivers from complaining “that you didn’t signal (ring) in time. They don’t understand their relationship to the system and how, by driving faster than the GPS computer, they can bias it.
BBB = Santa Monica’s Big Blue Bus
CHSRA = California High-Speed Rail Authority, which is the equivalent, in more ways than one, of the LACMTA.
CC or CCMBL = Culver City (Municipal) Bus (Lines)
CCTC = Culver City Transportation Center this is the place formerly known as FHMTC = the Fox Hills Mall Transportation Center (Sepulveda& Slauson)
FFE = Full Fare Equivalent (presently $1.50)
GMBL = Gardena Municipal Bus lines
ITC = Inglewood Transit Center
LAWA = Los Angeles World Airports.
LAXCBC = the LAX City Bus Center.
OCTA = Orange County Transportation Authority.
OOS = Out Of Service.
Rapid Transit = does not compete for right of way, that is, it will not run at grade unless it has EXCLUSIVE DEDICATED USE of the right of way).
R& J = Rough and Jerky [ride].
TT= Torrance Transit.
T1= the normal type of driver/staff.
T2= is the non-stop talker type of driver/staff, on the phone or to passengers,
T3= the uncommunicative type of driver/staff, sometimes surly.
WLATC = the West Los Angeles Transportation Center (Fairfax & Apple)

Su Topo’s Disclaimer and apologia
Your Mole always attempts to write an easy-on-the-eyes page using text input. Blogger.com however, has other ideas and will often not stay with a single font type or point size, produces extraneous spacing and etc. I wish I had time to debug the HTML which they produce, it is NOT the straight text which I pasted into the form, but I don’t. Therefore, I apologize on behalf of Blogger.com for the changes which they make, of which I do not approve. Sometimes, what I see, thankfully you don’t, is 24 point type –it is giant and other times they swallow my text, although it still seems to be there. In fairness to them, things seem better, although this is partly because I do understand which of their “features” do the most damage to me and consequently do not use them. Communicating these problems to them, for me, is something like having teeth extracted without the benefit of anesthetic, actually it is less fun than that. By their design, there is no simple e-mailing them with "Please look at my say, posting of 2009-06-28, it is weird!” I have been submitting feedback and experiences slow but positive progress.  Until all issues are resolved, lo siento. [Addendum 2014-07-31]: Things have been much better lately.  There is a more responsive feedback system now.  If things keep this way, I may have to delete this "Disclaimer and apologia" section in the near future.  Almost immediately after writing the preceding, the system "returned an error" on a save.

Your Mole’s Copyright Statement
All photographs and original written materials are copyrighted © 2007~2013 by LAmetroMole. Clicking a photo will often* present you with an enlargement (sometimes successive clicks will further enlarge the photo). *This feature is dependent upon the Internet browser which you use and possibly other factors.
This site contains or provides links to copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, sustainable development, environmental, community and worker health, public disclosure, corporate accountability, and etc. We have often included relatively brief quotes from articles and etc., sometimes in addition to a simple link, because we have found that links frequently go "bad" or change over time. We believe this constitutes a "fair use" of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without fee or payment of any kind to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes and to those who access the site via any and all other channels. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. Music or other recorded material on this site, or referred to by this site are copyrighted by their respective artists and are made available here for evaluation purposes only. Please support the artists you like by buying their commercial CDs, MP3s and downloads.

Your Mole’s Conflict of Interest Statement
This is to certify that I, the blogger who is known as the LAmetroMole, with respect to this blog, except as described below, am not now nor at any time during the past year have been, nor is it my current intention to ever be:
1) A participant, directly or indirectly, in any arrangement, agreement, investment, or other activity with any vendor, supplier, or other party doing business with any of the entities about which I have written, which has resulted or could result in personal benefit to me.
2) A recipient, directly or indirectly, of any salary payments or loans or gifts of any kind or any free service or discounts or other fees from or on behalf of any person or organization engaged in any transaction with any of the entities about which I have written.
Any exceptions to 1 or 2 above are stated below with a full description of the transactions and of the interest, whether direct or indirect, which I have (or have had during the past year) in the persons or organizations having transactions with any of the entities about which I have written.
There are no exceptions.

Date: 2009-06-24 S/LametroMole

Works Cited

Nelson, Laura J. "Metro picks Skanska venture to build first phase of Westside subway". Los Angeles Times. Jul. 24, 2014. Web. http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-lax-flyaway-bus-service-santa-monica-20140714-story.html

Panzar, Javier."'Century Crunch' underway outside LAX". Los Angeles Times. Jul. 20, 2014. Web.  http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-century-crunch-underway-at-lax-20140726-story.html

Pereira, Ivan. “City's transit costs most affordable in the nation: Study”.

Nelson, Laura J. "San Fernando Valley light-rail line is back on the table".  Los Angeles Times. Jul. 11, 2014. Web. http://www.latimes.com/local/la-me-valley-rail-20140712-story.html

Staff, Reporter. "Teen sticks head out of moving party bus, is killed by highway overpass". New York Post. Sep. 1, 2012:  Web.  http://nypost.com/2012/09/01/teen-sticks-head-out-of-moving-party-bus-is-killed-by-highway-overpass/

University of Maryland. "Fascinating rhythm: Light pulses illuminate a rare black hole." ScienceDaily.  Aug. 17, 2014. Web. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140817220054.htm

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The above is ### 30 ### in Braille 

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