Vae Viator45

When politicians involve themselves in technical matters, expect failures.

The photograph below documents the situation at the Maxella AV and Lincoln BL stop on the BBB number 3 Line. It is the sort of “work” one would expect from the LACMTA. They taped or caused to be taped shut the aperture in the plastic pipes associated with power poles. These pipes were used as improvised trash cans. BBB N.B. The stop still needs a trash can!

Su Topo will include this comment in every post with the above until BBB corrects the problem. For quite awhile BBB has been charging for intra-line transfers, reversing the long standing policy of free transfers to other BBB lines. Too, BBB has spent lots of money to build a big headquarters on Colorado BL just east of 4th Street. Mr. King, just a few dollars for a trash can, you might need a few more to cover other bus stops too, will erase this section. After all, it is Marina Del Rey! :-)

BBB Maxella Trash Fix???♪

White Line Incursion Series

Su Topo uses video to highlight the problem of scofflaw drivers endangering Metro bus passengers yet, no authority seems to want to take ownership of the problem. The issue is not unique to the particular site which this Mole documents, but is illustrative of a general problem. Your Mole encourages you to report similar problems to the appropriate agencies in your area(s) and hope that you will have better luck than he. In the youtube.com videos linked below one can see exactly what happens when the policing agencies fail to enforce traffic laws.

The videos linked below document the important fact that a never ending stream of vehicles fail to use the lane as required by law.

Neither are the policing agencies active when it comes to protecting us by bringing these obvious and frequent traffic law violations to an immediate halt. The LACMTA is derelict as well, in that they fail to use the near hourly proof of the violations captured by the on board cameras, mentioned here and discussed at length in the posting of 2012-05-31.

In the following video we see yet another instance of a scofflaw driver cutting I front of a Metro bus. Please see the www.youtube.com video here.
and here.  Y uno mas aquí.  Please watch closely in order to see the first of the three (3) vehicles which cut in front of the bus.

1In spite of the potential for these violations to occur several times per HOUR, I have never seen a police presence at this location. One would think that with a bus schedule taped to the dashboard one of the several policing agencies would have made some arrests by now. Unless they have "more important" work to do, than protecting bus passengers.

La Taupe feels that it is appropriate to dedicate these video(s) to ALL the agencies that should be protecting us. So, they are dedicated to (1): Airport (LAWA) Police, the L.A.P.D., the L. A. County Sheriff’s Department and Mr. A. Leahy who is CEO of the LACMTA.

La Taupe has recommended a simple solution to the problem. That is, have the 111 Line buses pull up to pedestrian crosswalk then stop and discharge passengers. Doing this eliminates the space in front of the bus which the always-in-a-hurry scofflaws use to cut in front of the Metro. *But with the LACMTA nothing is simple. Although the solution could be implemented with nothing more than a memo to the 111 Line drivers, it is a task for which the LACMTA is inadequate.

The Mole reads the papers and other things, obviating the necessity of your doing so.

The San Francisco Muni system must have thrown their hands in the air when they came up with this suggestion.
I found an excellent  Los Angeles Times piece (Boehm) on the planned Academy Museum of Motion Pictures which was designed by architects Renzo Piano and Zoltan Pali.  This is a structure that will be pleasent to view and will be a delight visit!  It appeals to this Mole’s sense of thrift by reforming the old May Company store on Wilshire and Fairfax and then adding a sectioned globe which will house a 1,000 seat theatre.  I will be looking forward to its opening in 2017.  ¡Bravo a señores Piano y Pali!  You can find a Web version of the article, dated a day earlier than the print article*,  on the Los Angeles Times Web site.  *Although, the date imbedded in the link is 20131103”??

If you like good arcitecture, as this Mole does, you will be very happy to follow this link!
The Orange County Register reprinted an AP article (Williams) about the incredibly expensive train from Nowhere-A to Nowhere-B.  Which plan apparently has increased in cost from $35 BILLION to $68 BILLION and will link San Francisco and Los Angeles with first generation “Bullet Train” technology in 16 years.   A legal action, Kings County, Tos, Fukuda vs. the High-Speed Rail Authority, challenging the CHSRA expenditures is in the courts.  You can read a portion of CASE NO. 34-2011-00113919, here.  

The Los Angeles Times reports (Vartabedian) on the current status of the above mentioned law suit.  It is a great piece by a team of fine writers, Ms Mason and Messrs. Vartabedian and Weikel.  I would like to quote the penultimate and portions of the ultimate paragraph: “At Friday’s [Nov. 8, 2013] court hearing, John Tos, a central Valley Almond grower who brought the case, said he hoped the project would be quashed.”  “It needs to go back to the voters … You need … to see whether or not they really want this.”  I urge you to read the article which is information dense, yet runs only about two columns. 

The Orange County Register details (Irving) Metrolink’s special severance packages in “… contracts typically reserved for only the highest levels of management, guaranteeing them cash payouts if they’re ever fired, records and interviews show.”  ‘Earlier this month, though, an outside auditor said he was still “not comfortable” with the agency’s accounting figures, after three weeks of going through its books.’   The severance payments ranged from $40,000 down to $15,000. This is just another article in a number which have exposed Metrolink’s ineptitude for financial management [Please see la Taupe’s post of 2013-10-31].   Please read this article its entirety in print or on the Web in its entirety, as the OCR is another great source for transportation related stories.

The Los Angeles Times relates the sad news (Flores) that a woman pedestrian was killed by an Amtrak train early on Wednesday November 13, 2013.  Reading such a somber article only intensifies su Topo’s desire that all mass transportation be grade separated.

Another Times article discusses (Schleuss) the long running mess that the LACMTA would probably call “our implementation of access control”.   Mr. Schleuss does a very good job of obtaining incriminating quotes from LACMTA officials.  Take for example, “Planning for latched gates before construction begins has the advantage of being less costly, Changing in the middle of construction can be very expensive.  Doing it after the fact can be even more expensive.”   Brilliant I say, but remember the 5Ps, Proper Planning Prevents Poor Performance”.  Why wasn’t access control planned in from the start?  That is the way most professional transportation agencies do it.  Well, one reason why the LACMTA is a highly experienced group is that they do everything three or four times before they even approach ‘getting it right’.

The piece documents the LACMTA’s inability to think straight:  building stations too small to be gated; paying $300,000 month to rent these simple things —which amount annualises to $3.6 MILLION; “… reviewing plans for future stations not yet under construction to see which ones can be locked”.

The Time article says, “About 400 deputies and 100 inspectors roam the system’s stations, trains and buses looking for crime and checking tickets.  Based upon a website this Mole estimates that a deputy earns $50,000 per annum and I will use  $30,000 as the annual earnings for a fare inspector.

The annual cost for these two functions when 100% allocated to finding “free riders” is $20,000,000 for deputies and $3,000,000 for fare inspectors.

The annual costs can be summarized as:

Lost Fares                                                  $ 2,400,000

Cost of Policing Fare Cheats                           23,000,000

Gate Rentals                                                  3,600,000

Cost of Retrofits                                                      ?

Total costs around preventing fare losses:      Lots of Money

Now, the above table is not meant to be all inclusive, it is entirely based upon estimates.  Your Mole’s main point is that even after patching up the system gaping holes will still remain —and lost fares will continue.  This is an example of the LACMTA demonstrating its art of throwing good money after bad.  Why is this the case?  I submit that the LACMTA are ineducable, instead of performing due diligence and making a determination as to the best manner in which to do something, they repeatedly make the same errors. 

Mr. Schleuss’ article causes this Mole to point out that according to a 1998 Los Angeles Times piece (Simon) about a then current “Metro” plan: “The plan suggests a tougher approach to fare cheats as well. If bus drivers collected just two additional cash fares per day, the MTA would realize $1 million more a year, the plan says. A 1995 audit by the agency's inspector general estimated that $2.2 million annually is lost from passengers boarding buses without paying the full fare. Drivers, however, have expressed concern for their safety in confronting fare evaders.   Su Topo’s own experience suggests that, if anything, the number of free rides on buses have increased. 

The dysfunctional agency also lacks institutional memory; the lack of which resulted in the construction of the Expo Line without access control gates, on the heels of a very costly retrofit period for other similarly, poorly designed stations, which dragged along over the years during which access control gates were installed.

I believe that the LACMTA’s only repeatable “skill”, in addition to spending money, is making mistakes and not learning from them.

I would think that based upon the facts presented  above, that a suit could be filed citing the LACMTA for breach of fiduciary responsibility and other failures such as the failure to live up to Measure R promises.  Why don’t we have such citizens in Los Angeles to stand up to the LACMTA, such as those who live in Kings County and challenged the CHSRA?
A team of Times reporters, Jon Schleuss, Laura J. Nelson and Doug Smith
produced a story (Schleuss) which discredits the LACMTA’s estimate, I know that you are shocked, of their fare paying ridership.

In what appears to be a 1.2 passenger million misunderstanding where the turnstile count is 800,000 lower after “locking the gates” when compared with pre locking “estimates” of ridership estimates; while the LACMTA says it is 400,000 higher.  Now, what are we to believe?  The machine generated count or the LACMTA’s spokesperson? 
Please read the entire article linked here because there is lots more, including several LACMTA statements which la Taupe translates as “duh”.  And do please, use the link entitled, "Three ways to measure ridership" to see Mr. Schleuss' graphical presentation of the data.

Su Topo hopes that this great team will take on the dysfunctional LACMTA and provide me with many more “Works Cited”. 

Technical Discourse

An article in Foreign Affairs (Levin) deconstructs the failure of the AHA system —which so many insist on calling a website.  It does involve a starting point website (a portal) but is in reality a complex system that interacts with other complex systems, such as the IRS, Social Security and etc.
When you reach the fourth paragraph you will find another statement of what your Mole describes as the problems which result from politicians, or other non-technicians, attempting to implement systems.

The relatively brief piece makes a number of good points.  For those who want more,  please follow the imbedded link to the Washington Post coverage.
The Post article has a great graphic which references the 55 contractors who built the system, which graphic links to another Post article which  asserts that testing of the system was inadequate. 

Other news sources are reporting the either 70% of the system is complete OR only 30% is complete.  In any event, it is unlikely that a fully functioning will be ready on November 30!  More on this developing story later.

«La volonté permet de grimper sur les cimes ; sans volonté on reste au pied de la montagne.»

Gustave Le Bon (1841-05-07~1931-12-13)

[Will allows us to climb the peaks, without will we rest at the foot of the mountain.]

Merci beaucoup à www.evene.fr/ .


Let’s listen to “El Mariachi” –by The Mexican Mariachi Band.
Thank you! to our good friends at www.grooveshark.com for always providing the appropriate music for us.

The Mole rides again, so you don't have to attempt to set a new World’s Land Speed Record when you cross Sepulveda BL at Rosecrans or Hawthorne BL at West Carson St.

(All times are expressed in the 24 hour system.)

2013-11-02: This is a day on which I felt like an LACMTA  Information Booth staffer, if they had such a thing.  I wait at a bus stop and soon I am helping two ladies from Madrid plan their bus trip.

Before long I meet a family from the D.F. in México find a route to Universal City.  Then on the way to the airport, I teach a Russian student how to ride the LAX shuttle and explain how to find his terminal.
The Orange County Register presents an illustrated guide (Snibbe) to the traffic signals of Orange County.  The piece says that the walk signals at “[m]ost intersections were timed to allow pedestrians to cross at a rate of four feet per second , but as recently as 2012, the rate dropped to 3.5 feet per second.   Your Mole has carefully observed that at the aformentioned  El Segundo intersection, that within the period of time required for one to take two (2) steps across Sepulveda BL in El segundo, the walk signal changes from a green “Walk” to red!   In terms of distance, a usual pedestrian would not even be one third of the way across the first traffic lane in that interval of time.

2013-11-06 06:30: Your Mole is onboard a 442 Line bus headed for downtown Los Angeles.  My fellow passengers are a congenial goup, who seem to know each other.

Bus stop observation:  It doesn’t take more than a one smoker to make a bus stop unihabitable.  If it is a Metro stop, that is; the LACMTA, unlike Long Beach Transit, allows smoking at its stops.

2013-11-12 morning: I’m waiting on Sepulveda BL for a 232 Line bus, read contracted by MV Transportation bus, and waiting and waiting.  Finally, I see it.  The picture below shows a facismile of the bus and the headsign displayed, the dreaded "Discharge Only" sign, by the 232, which passed me by.


 Riders? Let ‘em wait! 

Aboard any MV Transportation bus, at almost anytime:  These, mainly, 232 Line buses ALWAYS have teh onboard audio devices operating at the loudest posible setting.  TransiTV, ASA and the dispatcher’s radio channel are all set at an ear-splitting level.  This is just a given with MV Transportation and it is so because the LACMTA has no best practices for bus operations and are either unable or unwilling to enforce best practice upon or exercise supervision over, their contractors.   The CEO of MV Transportation, Mr. R. Carter Pate could and should institute a “rider confort” initiative; which initiative could start by scanning this Mole’s comments about his company and addressing them.

2013-11-15 morning aboard a 111 Line bus.  Many seem to be born without a civic responsibility gene or had it removed at birth.  The man seated two rows ahead of me is of that type.  He eats a sandwich, at the first bus sop serviced after finishing it, he tosses the wrappings out the open back door.

There is one right behind me 

2013-11-20 about 8:50AM.  Your Mole in unhapply in wait mode, again.  This time headed east on Santa Monica Bl.  I finally see a 740 Line bus.  It is similar to the one pictured above; I say similar because I didn’t have time to ready my camera for a picture.

Not a problem, because when the second bus passed me with a blank headsign I used it as a standin for both.  The first bus did show a “Not in Service” headsign and the second had a blank one.  After a very long wait caused by back-to-buses which stranded me, finally an inservice 740 showed up.

The 740 Line “Rapid” (Rapid means we pass up the other guy and pass the savings in time on to you) buses don’t provide service as frequently as they did at the outset and the promise of a bus every 15 minutes or so is an promise that is now neither documented nor fulfilled.

Bus stop observation: It doesn't take more than a single smoker to make a bus stop uninhabitable. Long Beach Transit, unlike "America's best', prohibits smoking at their stops.

2013-11-21 Aboard a 111 Line bus, morning:  Many passengers seem to be born without OR had their civic responsibility gene removed at birth. The man two rows ahead of me is of that type. He eats a sandwich as we go along and at the first bus stop serviced, he tosses the wrappings out of the rear door.


Sorry I cant' parallel park♪

Lots of Metro drivers can't parallel park at a bus stop so that the bus is an easy step away from and equidistant to the curb. Driver trainers and students should observe the parallel techniques of drivers when they check out and check in their buses at the beginning of a shift, anf at the end of their day as well. Those who are inadequate to the task, should be assigned remedial training. Mr. Leahy, don't you wish your staff could developer such service improvement ideas.  A man stands on the Hawthorne Station platform and combs his beard with a cake cutter.

Another smoker is observed at a Century BL bus stop.  This one has an especially foul odor. He has expropriated an entire bench due to the odor while the man at the next bench lays his claim to 75% of  his bench  because his shopping cart, which is overflowing with recyclables and blocks  access.

2013-11-23 afternoon: I enter Crenshaw station accompanied by the wailing gate alarms which signal that people are not paying their fares. While waiting on the platform I see a man smoking, uncaring, because he KNOWS that the LACMTA security, now what is that technical term, oh yes, sucks.

2013-11-25 10:30: I board a 210 bus and greet the driver with "Good Morning, how are you".  She ignores me like she likely does hundreds like me.  I noter he number but do not publish it because identifying run-of-the-mill rudeness would be a full time job.

All of the above is courtesy of the LACMTA which is still advertising itself as “America's Best".

2013-11-28  afternoon: aboard a Green Line train.  A father and his two sons are seated across from me.  One boy is about 7 the other 4 or 5. They talk quietly and pleasantly.   As we arrive at Aviation Station he says "manos",  both boys extend their hands and they detrain waking hand-in-hand.

Ear (and Eye) to the Rail

Mass Transit by the LACMTA

The purpose of this section is to make people aware that the LACMTA is not comprised of problem solvers.  I hope to accomplish this end by presenting the solutions adopted by other cities, some in foreign countries, in solving the city to airport mass transportation challenge.
Cautionary Note: Those employed by the LACMTA should NOT view the following video(s). The speed of the train(s), the fact that they neither share the right of way nor stop at stop lights because they are truly rapid transit, will likely make you dizzy, nauseous, confuse and frighten you.

This  video will take us from Roma Termini to Fiumicino airport.

¡Brava Ms Giulia!

Questa Mole deve dire grazie a signorina Giulia, www.cross-pollinate.com, e naturalmente, www.youtube.com!

If the LACMTA had about ten Ms Giulias, Metro service might be 100 times better.


We can see a beautiful artist’s conception of the physicist’s black hole theories here.  

Then let’s ask a professional to answer some of our questions.  The first one is about the maximum size of black holes.

Seasons Greetings from your Mole

¡Feliz Navidad y Prospero Año Nuevo!

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!

 Joyeux Noël et Bonne Année!


Fare Box Score Box and related Lists of Shame

I.D. Numbers of buses with Out of Order Fare Boxes: 7945;
Note: No or few entries above do not necessarily mean all fare boxes are in operation.

I.D.Numbers of Distracted Drivers: xxxxx (i);

None included here, but observations of a minor nature may be included in the main posting;

Codes: (i) Extended conversation(s) with passenger(s) or (ii) cell phone call(s). Frequently, details can be found in the text above, (ii*) cell phone call(s) which are aggravated by some other action, (iii) Self-distracted. Codes (ii*) and (iii) will ALWAYS be explained in the posting.

I.D. Numbers of Buses Defaced by WhoIs stickers: xxxx;

~UR or +UR = (+UR) whois sticker and the ugly residue left after passengers partly remove the sticker. (~UR) = Only the ugly residue left after passengers almost completely remove the sticker. +L = an old (legacy) sticker black letters on a plain white background –these are the original form of the defacement.

* Another reason for displaying the operator's ID on the internal display and the headsign.

ID numbers of Buses whose Head and Tailsigns disagree: Not noted xxx/xxx;

Format is Bus number followed by Headsign number/Tailsign number.

ID numbers of Buses without Braille signs: xxxx;

METRO drivers Lack of Basic Technical Skills Report

The format is Driver number F[{Y/-n/+n} C[{Y/N+/-}]. Meaning of F if Y the driver stopped with the Bus stop “flag pole” somewhere between the bus front door frames. A negative number, e.g., -3 is the approximate distance in metres (think yards dear readers) between the nearest bus door vertical frame member and the flag pole signifying that the bus stopped short of the flag. A positive number, e.g., +3 (metres) is the approximate distance between the nearest bus door vertical frame member and the flag pole signifying that the bus stopped past the flag. The value for C[{Y/N}], “Y” tells us that the driver stopped within an easy step from the curb to the bus, “N” means it was NOT an easy step from the curb to the bus. It is this Mole's belief that an average experienced good driver should be able to control his bus so as to position in near the curb and with the flag pole slightly to the front of the bus.

I.D. numbers of drivers who are unable or unwilling to position their buses parallel to the curb, a short step from the curb an equidistance from the vehicles exits.

xxxxxF[+3] C[Y]xxxxxF[Y], C[Y]; xxxxx F[Y], C[Y]; xxxxxF[Y], C[Y]; N.B. distances are in metres, think yards.
*this is MORE than a bus length.  nnnnn* = Contract Driver

I.D. numbers of drivers who are almost guaranteed to give you a Rough and Jerky (R& J) ride: xxxxx;


I.D. numbers of drivers who will give you a potentially life-threatening ride: XXXXX(J)/2013-07-23; XXXXX(-);

Codes: S = not wearing seat belts; J = bad judgment (unsafe driving practices).


La Taupe's Abréviations

ADADO = Automatic Destination Announcement (on) Door Opening. This feature is installed on many buses and operates on extremely few. Another“money down the toilet” LACMTA investment. La Taupe that this is intended for the visually impaired because people who can see can read the “head signs”.

ASAS = Automatic Stop Announcement System the GPS (Global Positioning System) driven mechanism for generating audio for the upcoming stops. N.B. Because of the low power (read weak) processors used in the on-board stops may be too close to identify stops separately. This is known as a granularity problem. Then too, if the driver operates the bus at speed above the speed limit you will find the system “back announcing” stops which you have already passed. I find that this will NOT keep some drivers from complaining “that you didn’t signal (ring) in time. They don’t understand their relationship to the system and how, by driving faster than the GPS computer, they can bias it.

BBB = Santa Monica’s Big Blue Bus

CHSRA = California High-Speed Rail Authority, which is the equivalent, in more ways than one, of the LACMTA.

CC or CCMBL = Culver City (Municipal) Bus (Lines)

CCTC = Culver City Transportation Center this is the place formerly known as FHMTC = the Fox Hills Mall Transportation Center (Sepulveda& Slauson)

FFE = Full Fare Equivalent (presently $1.50)

GMBL = Gardena Municipal Bus lines

ITC = Inglewood Transit Center

LAWA = Los Angeles World Airports.

LAXCBC = the LAX City Bus Center.

OCTA = Orange County Transportation Authority.

OOS = Out Of Service.

Rapid Transit = does not compete for right of way, that is, it will not run at grade unless it has EXCLUSIVE DEDICATED USE of the right of way).

R& J = Rough and Jerky [ride].

TT= Torrance Transit.

T1= the normal type of driver/staff.

T2= is the non-stop talker type of driver/staff, on the phone or to passengers,

T3= the uncommunicative type of driver/staff, sometimes surly.

WLATC = the West Los Angeles Transportation Center (Fairfax & Apple)


Su Topo’s Disclaimer and apologia

Your Mole always attempts to write an easy-on-the-eyes page using text input. Blogger.com however, has other ideas and will often not stay with a single font type or point size, produces extraneous spacing and etc. I wish I had time to debug the HTML which they produce, it is NOT the straight text which I pasted into the form, but I don’t. Therefore, I apologize on behalf of Blogger.com for the changes which they make, of which I do not approve. Sometimes, what I see, thankfully you don’t, is 24 point type –it is giant and other times they swallow my text, although it still seems to be there. In fairness to them, things seem better, although this is partly because I do understand which of their “features” do the most damage to me and consequently do not use them. Communicating these problems to them, for me, is something like having teeth extracted without the benefit of anesthetic, actually it is less fun than that. By their design, there is no simple e-mailing them with "Please look at my say, posting of 2009-06-28, it is weird!” I have been submitting feedback and experiences slow but positive progress.  Until all issues are resolved, lo siento.


Your Mole’s Copyright Statement

All photographs and original written materials are copyrighted © 2007~2013 by LAmetroMole. Clicking a photo will often* present you with an enlargement (sometimes successive clicks will further enlarge the photo). *This feature is dependent upon the Internet browser which you use and possibly other factors.


This site contains or provides links to copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, sustainable development, environmental, community and worker health, public disclosure, corporate accountability, and etc. We have often included relatively brief quotes from articles and etc., sometimes in addition to a simple link, because we have found that links frequently go "bad" or change over time. We believe this constitutes a "fair use" of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without fee or payment of any kind to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes and to those who access the site via any and all other channels. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. Music or other recorded material on this site, or referred to by this site are copyrighted by their respective artists and are made available here for evaluation purposes only. Please support the artists you like by buying their commercial CDs, MP3s and downloads.


Your Mole’s Conflict of Interest Statement

This is to certify that I, the blogger who is known as the LAmetroMole, with respect to this blog, except as described below, am not now nor at any time during the past year have been, nor is it my current intention to ever be:

1) A participant, directly or indirectly, in any arrangement, agreement, investment, or other activity with any vendor, supplier, or other party doing business with any of the entities about which I have written, which has resulted or could result in personal benefit to me.

2) A recipient, directly or indirectly, of any salary payments or loans or gifts of any kind or any free service or discounts or other fees from or on behalf of any person or organization engaged in any transaction with any of the entities about which I have written.

Any exceptions to 1 or 2 above are stated below with a full description of the transactions and of the interest, whether direct or indirect, which I have (or have had during the past year) in the persons or organizations having transactions with any of the entities about which I have written.

There are no exceptions.

Date: 2009-06-24 S/LametroMole


Works Cited

Boehm, Mike. “Museum aims at 2017 debut”.  Los Angeles Times. Nov. 3, 2013:E6.  Print.


Flores, Adolpho. “Amtrak train kills woman”.  Los Angeles Times. Nov. 14, 2013:AA7.  Print.


Levin, Peter L. and Shah, Shahid N. “Healthcare.gov Didn't Have to Be a Disaster”. F reign Affairs. Nov. 11, 2013. Web.


Schleuss, Jon. “Gate dilemma is proving costly for Metro rail”.  Los Angeles Times.  Nov. 18, 2013:AA1.  Print.


Simon, Richard. “MTA Pins Hopes on New Recovery Plan”. Los Angeles Times. May 6, 1998. Web. http://articles.latimes.com/1998/may/06/local/me-46813


Snibbe, Kurt. "LIGHT READING”. Orange County Register. Oct. 1, 2013:News14. Print.


Williams, Juliet. "Altered Route Urged for 2nd High-Speed Rail Leg”. Orange County Register. Nov. 1, 2013:News26. Print.

Vartabedian, Ralph and Mason, Melanie. "Rail project funding too risky, critics”. Los Angeles Times. Nov. 9, 2013:AA4. Print.

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The above is ### 30 ### in Braille


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